Category Archives: Industrial Product

Sanitary Industrial Filters For Advanced Compressed Air and Gas Filtration

The newest name in advanced microfiltration technology for industrial compressed air and gas applications is the availability of Sanitary Industrial Filters. These filters offer the performance of standard, widely available coalescing filters, pre-filters, and activated carbon filters, but are manufactured with stainless steel housings and are typically equipped with sanitary inlet and discharge connections. Sanitary Industrial Filters offer a complete filtration solution to users with enhanced filtration requirements, incorporating housings specially outfitted for sanitary applications. Whether combined with a sterile filter for a staged filtration model to achieve the highest level of compressed air or gas purification, or used in tandem with other Sanitary Industrial Filters, these filters make available enhanced housing integrity that delivers the highest grade of compressed air filtration possible for specialized installations with demanding performance requirements.

Typically, this level of compressed air filtration is required by those industries with the highest purity requirements, such as dairy, food processing, beverage, medical, pharmaceutical, electronics, semiconductor, asceptic packaging, and chemical processing. Other applications served by sanitary industrial filters include any industry where sensitive measurement or pneumatic controls are employed.

Just a few of the highlighted benefits provided by a Sanitary Industrial filtration installation include:

  • Employment of high-quality, non-corrosive stainless steel housings for industrial applications that ensures the oxidation commonly found in aluminum housing filters will no longer be a problem.
  • Cleanability is enhanced with stainless steel housings, thereby extending the service life for all installed filtersno matter the filtration model employed.
  • Simplification of filter maintenance during element replacement.
  • Sanitary industrial filters offer filtration efficiencies of up to 99.99998% at 0.01 microns in coalescing filters, depending on the grade of the installed element.

End-user site requirements vary greatly from installation to installation. Some users have need for filters with sanitary connections, while others require NPT or even stub-end connections for welded installations. Still others have need for a combination of these connections. When considering the options available for Sanitary Industrial Filters, it’s critical to employ the unit that offers latitude with respect to customized product integration and installation. Further to physical installation flexibility, process engineers should be afforded the opportunity to customize a staged filtration model in an al la carte fashion to effectively and precisely address their specific needs. In other words, end-user system designs should have the option of employing any number of filter combinations; combinations that include employing any of the full-range of industrial filtration elements available. Specifically, the end-user should be able to select and combine any of all grades of coalescers, activated charcoal, dust filter, and vacuum filter elements for a staged filtration model that serves the requirements specific to their needs. These specialized installations oftentimes require greater flexibility than off-the-shelf aluminum housing filters can provide.

Being a recent innovation, the competitive landscape is limited, but the availability of Sanitary Industrial Filters and their complete range of element types and applications they serve are not. Sanitary Industrial Filters are, indeed, available with not just a full range of element grades and types, but also a variety of inlet/discharge sizes and types, as well as various operating pressure specifications, including high pressures units capable of up to 6,000 psi.

The Many Uses of Hemp

Hemp is an incredibly versatile plant that can be used to make all sorts of products from clothing and shoes to rope. It can even be used for buildings. The beauty of using hemp as a replacement for a variety of different materials is that it is highly sustainable. Hemp can be grown without the need for pesticides or fertilisers making it a great alternative to cotton. Hemp is also really fast growing as it is a grass, this makes it easily renewable in contrast to timber and wood. The oil from hemp seeds contain amino acids and essential fatty acids making it a great food product but the oil is also used for a huge variety of other industrial products. The oil can even be used as an bio fuel which is a great alternative to non renewable fossil fuels.

The fibre of the hemp plant is also called bast and used to make textiles and paper. The plant typically produces 10% more fibre than either cotton or flax and is strong and quick growing. Textiles made from the hemp plant can be used to make shoes, clothing, sails and carpets. It was widely used for these purposes before the industrial revolution but its popularity then declined due to the availability of other textiles. Hemp clothing is now beginning to become popular again primarily because of sustainability of the plant.Ecological Shoes use hemp as an alternative to leather for manufacturing its ethical and vegan shoes.

It is hard to imagine but the strength from the hemp plant can be harnessed and used to strengthen buildings. Hempcrete, as it is known is made by mixing hemp hurds and lime. It is less brittle than concrete and therefore is more resistant to cracking reducing the need for expansion joints. Hemp has also been used in other composite materials for construction. The use of hemp in this way is really just in its infancy stage with it mostly being used for prototypes.

Hemp can also be used to make the composite panels for cars. The hemp bast fibre is mixed with fibreglass for a strong material. As well as it many other uses hemp oil, which is obtained from the fruit of the hemp plant, can be taken as a dietary supplement and has been shown to relieve the symptoms of eczema. It also has anti inflammatory properties and can be used for medical purposes.

The hemp plant is also very useful for ecological reasons. It can be used to clean waste water removing impurities like sewage. It can remove excess phosphorus from chicken effluent or other chemicals. It has even been used to clear contaminents after the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The density and height that the hemp plant can grow to make it ideal for weed control. It minimises the pool of weed seeds i n the soil and is particularly useful for controlling tough weeds, helping to reduce the use of herbicides.

With its sustainability and many different uses, hemp could well be one of the crops of the future providing a partial solution to a number of environmental issues. There are however some issues surrounding the scale of hemp production which is partially limited by it status as a controlled crop in the US. With time, hopefully the production of hemp will become scalable allowing it to be used more extensively to make these many products.

Power Supply Types – Learning the Characteristics and Functions of Each

When one hears the term power supply, he will simply conclude that it is an electrical power source. With the use of certain forms of equipment, electrical energy as well as other forms of energy is successfully transferred into an output. The definition and function of this product makes it more closely linked to supplies or gadgets that require electrical energy.

Electrical power is one of the terms crucial to power supply. It is the distribution system that converts electrical power from one form to another. This may include a list of sources including batteries, chemical fuel cells, solar power, alternators and generators and other types of energy storage systems. Below is a detailed description of each of these power supplies.

Linear power supplies

One of the most popular types of linear power supplies is the AC linear power. When transforming the current that comes from an AC to a lower voltage, a transformer is used. For production of direct current or DC from the AC, one makes use of the rectifier. The latter produces pulsating current through the presence of a capacitor. The actual voltages produced may depend upon the load present in the AC supply. This type of linear power is classified under such category because it functions with the use of a linear regulator that stabilizes and adjusts the equipment voltage.

Aside from AC linear power, a battery is actually one of the linear forms of power supply and is highly favored because it makes traditional power supplies become more portable and reliable. It is comprised of a wide array of cells that are electromechanically connected to each other. Such connection results to the desired voltage needed by a certain gadget to reach its optimum functions. Lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and dry cell batteries are popular subcategories of batteries.

Switched-mode power supplies

This is entirely different from the linear form. It also produces AC or DC power but uses a varied principle. There is no need to make use of a transformer in order to rectify the transformation of AC to DC voltages. The voltage that is produced by this technique is broken down further into small pieces of electronic switches. The switches are enlarged once there is an increasing power requirement for a certain system or industry.

Aside from these two main categories for a power supply, there are other forms used in many industries. There are programmable as well as uninterruptible power supplies. High voltage power supplies are also part of the list. These types of power supplies may be applied in computer systems and welding industries.

Significance of Petrochemical Industry and Its Products

The process of refining crude oil leads to the production of a number of by products which are classified as petroleum products. These products are present in our daily trivial things to the most significant things available. The uses of these products are so significant that it is simply impossible to live life without it.

Some of the most common products which contain these by products include paints, thinners, dry cleaning chemicals, inks, insecticides, charcoal lighters, construction chemicals and so forth. With an endless list it is quite impossible to categorize all the items.

Different Petrochemical Products of Significance

These products have a wide variety of uses which are explained as below:

  • Wax: petrochemical products also includes wax as it is a by- product of petroleum and is widely used to make candles, various types of polishes, cartons and so forth.
  • Synthetic: this is another by- product that is of immense importance and which is obtained by refining petroleum. Synthetic is used as a raw material for manufacturing different types of garments.
  • Fertilizers: it is also used as fertilizers to protect crops from damage. Various kinds of pesticides and insecticides are manufactured using petrochemical products.
  • Preservatives: these products also act as preservatives to canned food. It is also used for producing different types of vitamins.
  • Soaps and detergents: it is a main ingredient in detergents and soaps.
  • Dyes: petrochemical products also include dyes which are used in ink pens. It is also included in cloth dyes.
  • Plastic commodities: majority of the plastic containers, plates and cups contain this by- product of crude oil. It is one of the widely and commonly used products as it is made of polyester.
  • Plasters: petrochemical products are being used for the manufacture of non stick pads, used extensively in the medical field.
  • Sports shoes: are also manufactured with the use of these by- products. The flexible rubber shoes are the results of the extensive use of synthetics which remain intact in all weathers.
  • Explosives: most of the explosives contain petroleum products.

Petrochemical products are used in varied forms in all fields. Ranging from common household items to complex applications, the uses are extensively wide and different.

The Indian petrochemical products have great demand and significance in the global markets. A huge share of products is being marketed to different parts of the world through the business portals. The top notch quality of the Indian products coupled with low price rate is one of the main reasons for its rising demand in the international markets.

Most of the Indian products such as polymers, wool, fibre, cotton, surfactants, acrylics and synthetics are supplied at discounted rates but with superior quality in the international markets. The demand for Indian products has skyrocketed to unfathomable heights due to these reasons.

The petrochemical markets in India are growing immensely due to many favourable factors. With the wide use of these products, it is one of the most promising industries in the world yielding huge revenue for the country.

Early History of Adhesive Tape

The history of adhesive tape dates back to the 1920’s when Richard Drew used cellophane paper to create a tape with an adherent, sticky surface. The first “adhesive tape” was created as masking for use with various industrial products. But, Drew’s creation showed promise for other uses in packaging as well. The first came to be called “cellophane tape” owing to the first material used to create it.

“Scotch” Tape – 1930

When the first roll of “cellophane tape” was sent to a customer in 1930, the 3M company was moved to produce a product known as “Scotch”, the more familiar name by which the product is known. However, since the early days, the types of tapes sold today are virtually endless in variety.

Adhesive Tape – Uses

The primary use has been packaging. Packaging tapes come in a wide range of sizes from narrow half-inch to shipping sizes which range from one and a half inches to two inches. Sizes are standardized so that they can be used with dispensers. The material from which adhesive tapes are made today are cellophane, acrylic, fiberglass, silicone, foil, rubber and paper, depending on the strength of the bonding required for the particular project. In addition to packaging and shipping for cartons, boxes and parcels for mailrooms, they are used as sealants for ductwork, electrical wiring as well as for strapping of containers and for stabilizing carpeting. Adhesive tapes may be double sided, reinforced for sealing, velcro-sided and foam-backed for insulation purposes.

Special Purpose Adhesives

Adhesive tapes are used for special jobs. As an example, painters often use masking varieties as their guide so that paint doesn’t over-extend from walls into ceilings. Polyimide film is used for masking circuit boards and splicing wires. There are also heavy duty versions for stronger bonding of items of heavy weight. Acid-free versions are used to mat and frame pictures, artwork and documents. They are also manufactured for permanent bonds in high temperature industrial areas. Adhesive transfer tape is most often used to adhere small signs to a smooth surface. Double-sided black foam versions are preferably for mounting heavy dispensers like mailboxes, lavatory dispensers, fiberglass panels and large signs. Vinyl acrylic tapes are used by law enforcement to cordon off crime scene areas.

The Many Styles of Adhesive Tape

In addition to the familiar “roll” of tape, it is sold in large coils for industrial purposes, pre-cut in various sizes and shapes from strips to small adhesive “dots” in single or double-sided ranges. Adhesive tape dispensers are usually sold with the tape roll for household and school uses. Larger desktop dispensers, hand-held and larger industrial “roller” dispenser are sold for additional convenience in handling projects where cohesion is required.

A Convenience and Necessity

Adhesive tape serves numerous purposes. The convenience of them makes it virtually indispensable around the home and business. Whenever an important document suffers a sudden tear, adhesive tape repairs it fast.

History of Skincare Part 16: The Industrial Revolution, 1800-1849

The Face of the Industrial Revolution

When imagining the people who lived during the Industrial Revolution, it is easy to picture the characters from a Charles Dickens novel. It is easy to imagine cities filled with soot-faced Oliver Twists and David Copperfields. In some respects, this picture is accurate. The first half of the nineteenth century saw many major technological advances. The invention of the steam engine made manufacturing and transportation much easier and dozens of large factories sprung up within the span of a few years. New mining techniques were developed in order to produce the coal needed to power the new factories. Rural citizens, looking for work, began to migrate to major cities such as London and New York. The air was indeed filled with a Dickensian smog, but the Industrial Revolution also had a profound effect on skin care products and cosmetic use. As the average pay rose, an increasing number of ordinary citizens were finding themselves able to afford soaps and make-ups that had previously been far out of reach.

A Moral Dilemma

By the end of the eighteenth century, make-up had been deemed inappropriate for all but prostitutes and actors. While this attitude persisted throughout much of the nineteenth century, women were allowed a few cosmetic exceptions. Pale skin was still considered a mark of high birth and while the heavy lead powders of a century earlier were no longer used, they were replaced by a thin coating of zinc oxide. The zinc oxide offered the benefit of a lightened skin tone, but was more subtle and more natural looking than the caked on powder that had been so popular before. Subtle eyeshadow made from lampblack was also popular, although lip and cheek rouge remained taboo. While many women still mixed their own cosmetics, modern manufacturing techniques had made it much easier to mass produce these products. Although the use of manufactured cosmetics was extremely popular, however, it was not considered proper to buy or sell beauty products. Because of this, most stores sold them under the counter. **

In spite of the stigma that still surrounded skincare and cosmetic products, some women did speak out to promote their use. In 1833, Jacobine Weiler published a book titled, “Cosmetics of the Female Sex, or The Secret Art of Perfecting Beauty and Health and Retaining It into Old Age” that promoted cosmetic use as a beauty aid. While respectable women could not be seen buying lip or cheek rouge, numerous recipes were published describing methods for making lip pomade in the home. Recipes included common ingredients such as butter, wax and natural dies made from currants and the plant alkanna tictoria.***

For all the women who defended cosmetic use, however, there were many others who believed that wearing make-up was the first step toward a life of sin. Many books dedicated to the defamation of cosmetics were also published. “Godey’s Lady’s Book,” for example, was published around the middle of the century. It suggested that instead of trying to cover blemishes with make-up, women should rely solely on “moral cosmetics,” which included sleeping and avoiding sinful pastimes such as gambling and drinking.

Cleansing the Natural Way

As mass production methods were refined, the price of numerous hygiene products became less expensive and more readily available. While perfumed soaps had been considered a luxury item half a century earlier, soap was now commonplace in all but the poorest homes. Because women could no longer hide behind a thick layer of powder, there was a much stronger emphasis on naturally beautiful skin. Harsh cleansers were more easily produced as well, but they were often ignored in exchange for more natural skincare ingredients. Egg yolks, honey and oatmeal were all commonly used to soften the skin and help diminish blemishes. Lemon juice was sometimes used to naturally bleach the skin a few shades lighter. While naturally glowing health may have been the look of choice at the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, it would soon make way for the frail, sickly look of the Victorian Era.

References:

** Read more about nineteenth century make-up here: http://www.localhistories.org/cosmetics.html

*** Read more about the Industrial defenders of cosmetics here: http://www.cosmetic-business.com/en/showartikel.php?art_id=1409

How To Select An Industrial Water Chiller – A Step-By-Step Guide

An industrial water chiller is a machine, which is specially designed to cool down the temperature of big plants and machinery in industrial facilities. These are used in a variety of applications. There are so many types of chillers available in the market and choosing between the one as per your industry need is an important task. Whatever your industry, choosing the best product is actually a complicated task. But don’t need to be confused, here is a step-by-step guide below that helps you to choose the right product for your applications.

Determine the heat load: First and foremost thing to do before purchasing an industrial chiller is to determine the heat load of your industry. There are so many ways to calculate the heat load capacity and for this, you can even take professional help. It totally depends on your application, so, first of all, you have to understand your process to calculate an accurate load.

Determine the coolant type: While selecting an industrial water chiller for your workplace, don’t forget to determine its cooling type, temperature and flow rate that is a must for your process.

Identify the installation environment: Another important thing to consider while selecting an industrial water chiller is its installation environment. At what place it is going to be installed? This is a must to check because the temperature or climate of indoor or outdoor is totally different. So, you should check that the product you are going to buy is able to withstand different climates or not. Their installation places will also affect its size and other required accessories.

Chiller performance curve: This will help you to select the right model, which has the capability to meet the demand of your industry.

Check pump performance: Don’t forget to check the pump performance. This will help you to know that the pump provides the required pressure for flow or not to satisfy the demand of your industry.

Final selection: Last, but not the least, it’s time to check the remaining applications such as power characteristics, control options, footprints, color, size and many other specifications. Choosing a standard industrial chiller bring you greater reliability and good support.

So, now you know things that you should consider while purchasing it. Another important aspect to keep in mind while purchasing it is, buy it from trusted industrial water chiller manufacturers. This is an outstanding product to buy with so many benefits.

What Is A PTFE Ring Gasket?

Leakage is the most common problem of every industry whether it is the leakage of water or the chemicals. Fighting back with the leakage of the chemicals is necessary, especially when you are operating with the hazardous chemicals. From the huge range of the products, Flange Guards and Gaskets are the products that are widely used to prevent the leakage of the liquids, oils, and gases. The gaskets are available in the market with various materials as per the application of the product. The gaskets are classified into three categories mainly; metallic, semi-metallic and nonmetallic.

PTFE gasket is perfect for the industries which are dealing with the hazardous chemicals and it is a non-metallic product which is easily available in the market. PTFE stands for Polytetrafluoroethylene which has the high-end material capabilities for resisting chemicals. The industries like Aerospace, Heat Exchangers, Plumbing, Chemical Industries, Food Industries, Pharmaceuticals, Petrochemicals, Oil and Gas Industries, etc. are used the gaskets for sealing the liquids or gases flowing in the pipelines. It is non-corrosive and is available in different shapes and sizes. The product has excellent working capabilities with high and low temperature. It is popular for its chemical resisting properties and there is no chance of leakage as well as the cross-linking. It is also economical in price and can be used by any manufacturer or industry. The PTFE gaskets are available in various structures, for example Ring, Envelope, Reedy Type, etc.

Various Properties Of PTFE Ring Gaskets:-

Heat And Chemical Resistance: The PTFE gaskets are famous for its temperature and chemical resistant properties. It is non-sticking in nature without tarnishing its appearance. The main cause of failure of the operation is the high temperature and concentration of the acids. PTFE products are specifically known for resisting them effectively.

Non-Friction: The flange and bolt load create friction with the surface of the joints and the product has to face extreme pressure which can blow it out and cause leakage. PTFE products are the best at preventing the leakage and creation of friction. The product is the best at bearing loads and is an excellent choice for pipe gaskets.

Wide Application: The PTFE products are used in various industrial applications because they are cheap, affordable, safe, reliable, prevents leakage, extreme temperature resistant, corrosion resistant, etc. It can deal with low as well as high temperature and bears the high load. They are used in chemical, petrochemical, oil and gas industry, etc. It perfectly seals the liquid and gas in the pipes.

Pharmaceutical Peptone Is A Valuable Biological Product

What is a biological product?

The US department of federal law and government has defined Biological product as any organic compound. It can be

• Virus

• Therapeutic serum

• Toxin

• Antitoxin

• Vaccine

• Blood and other blood components

• Allergenic product

• Analogous product

• Arsphenanaine

All these living organisms or chemicals are both useful and harmful to mankind. These substances are used in agricultural, pharmaceutical, food and beverages, cosmetics, microbiology culture media, biotechnology and fermentation and plant tissue culture media. All these products help in obtaining useful products for us. These substances are composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids and cells and are obtained from both plant and animal.

One of the most important and broadly used biological products is Peptones. It is one of the best biological products and has many advantages in numerous industries. Researchers all over the world have researched and found practical application of Peptone in medicinal and cosmetic industries.

More about Peptone

Peptone is also called as peptide or protein. It is unique and different from meat, soya and other protein forms. It is an innate source of amino acid with enriched hydroxy proteins, proline and glycine. These proteins play an essential part in strengthening fibrous tissues. Moreover, it is free from adverse reactions and easily available as Peptone Powder.

Properties of Pharmaceutical Peptone

This Peptone is usually light yellow or white in color and a very special smell. It is soluble in water but not in alcohol. These properties of peptone help it dissolve in water and stand clear to form Peptone water.

Use of Pharmaceutical Peptone in numerous fields

Peptone Manufacturers have extended the alternative use of peptone in medical and cosmetic products. Peptone is extracted from both plants and animals. Meat and Sunflower plant is a huge resource for the same. These products are easily available in website stores these days. Peptones infusions and peptone extracts with its raw material are functional in culture medium manufacturing.

Medicinal and Cosmetic use of Peptone

Through research, renowned scientists experimenting and researching about skin infection have found the root cause of eczema. It is caused due to a strain of microbial yeast grown in the skin. Eczema is a dreadful disease of the skin and it is caused by microbial yeast. which can be eradicated by peptides. Peptone could provide treatment for many such debilitating skin disorders. It is so helpful that researchers are still finding more alternative ways to bring peptone in application.

KENAF – An Alternative Crop For Tropical and Temperate Agriculture

Introduction To The Plant That Can Stop The Cutting Of Old Growth Forests

Hibiscus cannabinus L., kenaf is a warm season annual closely related to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).

Kenaf can be used as a domestic supply of cordage fiber in the manufacture of rope, twine, carpet backing and burlap. Research, in the early 1940s, focused on the development of high-yielding anthracnose-resistant varieties, cultural practices and harvesting machinery.

Kenaf Fiber is an ideal PLANT BASED and renewable source of fiber that has many characteristics of both wood fiber and plant fiber. Kenaf has many uses including textile fiber and woodfiber characteristics. The resultant fibers are extremely strong and very durable. Kenaf has many uses including:.

Pulp, paper and cardboard (from wet way process).

Standard newsprint containing between 90% and 100% chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp.

Standard newsprint from mixes of KTMP pulp and de-inked pulp from retted paper.

Newsprint from mixes of kenaf thermo-mechanical pulp (KTMP) and wood pulp from Southern Pine.

Super-calendered writing and printing paper from mixtures containing KTMP pulp.

Various types of writing and printing paper containing KTMP.

Fine coated paper from mixtures containing KTMP.

Various types of tissue paper containing KTMP pulp.

Sulphate pulp (Kraft) from the whole kenaf stem and from separated fibres.

Chemical pulp from the whole kenaf stem or from separated fibres obtained using processes other than Kraft.

Linerboard, corrugated board made from kenaf pulp (from mechanical or chemical processes using both the whole kenaf stem or separated fibres).

Lining for roofs in feltpaper.

Hardboard panels made from whole stems or separated fibres.

Cellulose for chemical uses.

Handmade art paper from whole kenaf stems or just from separated fibres.

Panels (dry processes using moldable fibre mattresses).

Moldable fibre mattresses for industrial uses from Kenaf bast fibre.

Natural molded fibres for interior panels for cars and planes.

Rigid molded products: boxes, trays, drums, pallets etc. for the packing, stowage and shipment of industrial products.

Pressed board and other materials for use in the furniture and construction industries.

Compressed insulating panels.

Decorative wall panels.

Linings in compressed fibre for doors and other decorative applications (architectural).

Traditional cordage uses

Padding material (to substitute jute and kenaf imported from Asia).

String, rope and cord to substitute imported cordage.

Material for mattresses and furniture.

Bast fibre mattresses impregnated with grass seeds and absorbent agents for “instant lawns”.

Bast fibre mattresses combined with spray mulching products to control terrain erosion.

Mass uses as absorbent agent.

Animal litter.

Horticulture and flower-growing products.

Cleaning up of liquid leakages from plants in industrial areas.

Cleaning of industrial flooring.

Additive for drilling muds in oil wells.

Filtering products.

Compost

Packing materials.

Inert, natural and biodegradable filler, used instead of polystyrene foam.

Wrapping for gifts and handicraft products.

Natural fuels.

Biomass for burning in various forms (powder, core fibre and waste in general).

Right now all over the world about 1,700,000 acres of kenaf are being grown. That is usually grown by a small holder and backyard growers. China has over 250,000 acres but is planning to grow millions of acres of kenaf. For millennia kenaf has been used for rope, food, twine and sackcloth. Kenaf combines environmentalism with the vast need for the most important component of civilized society, paper. At the same time it can help mitigate climate change being driven by deforestation. It’s a win-win plant.

Kenaf continues to be used in Africa and Asia as a cordage crop, processed in the same way for over 4000 years. However, in 2008, kenaf has come of age in the developed world because of a juxtaposition of many factors including global warming, extensive planetary deforestation, high energy prices and extreme weather developing throughout our planet. As a result of these factors the need for an environmentally sound alternative to the use of wood based fibers has grown and will continue to accelerate in the indefinite future.

For many years, kenaf was considered just an environmental novelty, mostly used by so called ecofanatics. They purchased kenaf as an ecopaper, because they did not want to buy paper made from chips from Old Growth Forest. Many people did not really believe in the possibility of global warming and the contributing factors of excessive deforestation to drive global climate change. But as the Arctic ice continued to melt, and more and more wild weather continues, oil prices accelerate and the global forest diminishes, kenaf is at the forefront of the coming environmental business and sustainable development sea change.

Kenaf Is The Fiber That Can Change The World! Join The Corporate Leaders Who Are Moving Toward Sustainability

During the 1950s, kenaf was identified as a promising fiber source for paper pulp. Kenaf fibers have been processed into high quality newsprint and bond paper.

Although kenaf is usually considered a fiber crop, research indicates that it has high protein content and, therefore, is a potential livestock feed. Crude protein in kenaf leaves ranged from 21 to 34 percent, stalk crude protein ranged from 10 to 12 percent, and whole-plant crude protein ranged from 16 to 23 percent.

Kenaf can be ensilaged effectively, and it has satisfactory digestibility with a high percentage of digestible protein. Digestibility of dry matter and crude proteins in kenaf feeds ranged from 53 to 58 percent, and 59 to 71 percent, respectively Kenaf meal, used as a supplement in a rice ration for sheep, compared favorably with a ration containing alfalfa meal.

In addition to the use of kenaf for cordage, paper pulp and livestock feed researchers have investigated its use as poultry litter and animal bedding, bulking agent for sewage sludge composting and as a potting soil amendment. Additional products include automobile dashboards, carpet padding, corrugated medium, as a “substitute for fiberglass and other synthetic fibers,” building materials (particle boards of various densities, thicknesses, and fire and insect resistances), absorbents, textiles and as fibers in extraction molded plastics.

Photosensitivity and Seed Production

Kenaf varieties can be divided into two major groups based on their photosensitivity – photosensitive and photoinsensitive. Typically, photosensitive varieties are preferred for the production of fiber in the United States. Two of these varieties, Everglades 41 and Everglades 71, were developed by USDA researchers to extend the vegetative growing season before the plants initiate flowering. Photosensitive cultivars initiate flowering when daylengths decrease to approximately 12.5 h; mid September in southern states. In photosensitive varieties, the initiation of flowering causes a reduction in vegetative growth. Because of late floral initiation and inability to produce mature seed prior to a killing frost, seed production in the United States for these varieties is limited to southern Florida, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and southernmost Arizona and California.

Photoinsensitive (often referred to as day neutral) varieties can initiate flowering and produce mature seed before a killing frost north of latitude 300. Photoinsensitive varieties, such as Guatemala 4, Guatemala 45, Guatemala 48, Guatemala 51 and Cuba 2032, can initiate flowering 100 days after planting (DAP), and before the daylength decreases to 12.5 h. Photoinsensitive varieties can, therefore, be planted during May or early June in central United States and still have ample time to produce mature seed. The earlier production of mature seed for photoinsensitive varieties greatly expands the potential seed production areas.

As a livestock feed, kenaf is usually harvested at an earlier growth stage than as a fiber crop; 60 to 90 DAP compared with 120 to 150 DAP. During a shorter growing season, photoinsensitive varieties can produce dry matter yields equivalent to photosensitive varieties, while using seed that can be produced further north and in a larger geographic area.

Harvesting and Pelletizing

The evaluation of field equipment for harvesting kenaf continues to be an important aspect of commercialization. It has been demonstrated that standard forage cutting, chopping and baling equipment can be used for harvesting kenaf as either a forage or fiber crop. Kenaf can be baled into small square or large round bales. Sugar cane harvesters, with and without modification, have also been successfully used to harvest kenaf. In cotton growing regions, cotton modules have been used for field-side storage of chopped kenaf. Kenaf can also be pelleted for use as a fiber or forage crop.

Pelletizing kenaf increased its density by at least 390 percent, therefore, reducing both transportation and storage costs. It may be economically advantageous to use available commercial harvesting and processing equipment rather than investing in the development and production of kenaf specific equipment. Appropriate harvesting and pelletizing equipment is readily available throughout the United States. Mobile in the field harvester/separators are being developed, which will cut and then separate the bast and core fibers in the field.

When harvesting kenaf for fiber use, the moisture content and the equipment availability are important considerations. Kenaf can be harvested for fiber when it is dead, due to a killing frost or herbicides, or when it is still growing. The dry standing kenaf can be cut and then chopped, baled or transported as full length stalks. If the kenaf drying and defoliation process is dependent on a killing frost, the harvesting date will vary on the area of the state where the crop is growing and the time required for the kenaf to dry unless artificial drying is used. Much of the land which could be planted to kenaf does not lend itself to late harvest because of weather conditions and soil type.

Actively growing kenaf can be cut and then allowed to dry in the field. 0nce dried, the kenaf can then be chopped, baled or transported as full length stalks. The availability of in the field harvester/separators will add to the harvesting options.

Kenaf is a crop which is normally harvested in late fall or winter, and only once during the year. This presents some unique situations as far as supply and storage are concerned.

Marketing

Additional markets for kenaf as a fiber crop and as a finished product need to be developed. The development of kenaf as a fiber crop depends on several conditions. What happens in the forest industry in the wood and pulp product areas will be a major factor in the development of kenaf into a major industry The development of large stable markets for the raw and finished products must occur before farmers and industry will be willing to invest time and capital on a large scale.

The development of any new industry takes time, capital, scientific research, product research and development, and eventually stable markets. In the kenaf industry part of this development has already happened, but much is yet to be done.

Summary

The United States acceptance of kenaf as a major commercial crop will be strengthened as additional uses for kenaf are established. The increased production, processing and product development work being conducted within private industry state universities and USDA laboratories is encouraging and suggests a bright future for the establishment of kenaf as a commercial crop. However, for kenaf to become a viable alternative agricultural crop, stable markets must be established which will provide farmers with an economic return equal to or surpassing what they now receive for a given crop.

For kenaf to effectively replace products now on the market, it will have to be of equal or better quality than those to be replaced, be readily available to the industry and end users, be easily harvested and h have potential to be economically produced.

Additional agricultural research for tropical countries should include disease control and variety adaptation, along with the evaluation of harvesting systems and the economics appropriate for their country’s production areas and products.

Kenaf is now being used in automobile interiors and other similar products.